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“The Lifestyle.”

Facts about working out.

Working out needs to be part of our daily routine. It's a discipline many have failed to empress. Just like any other, working out should be one's lifestyle, hence commitment is required. Its usually along term process that needs patience and endurance. People usually workout because of the following, Minimizes prevalence of hypertension, prevention and management of diabetes type II, reduce cholesterol levels in the body, improve mental clarity and its said to have reduced anxiety and depression.


Exercise is to be recommended if that is the normal habit of the mother, however need no longer be insisted upon if she is usually sedentary. She need to take walks and different light exercising if she desires. The girl should neither become a fanatic for workout nor refrain from all physical pastime. If she enjoys swimming, she may retain to swim. Contact and excessive-impact sports do pose potential dangers for the pregnant female as they will cause abdominal trauma, falls or excessive stress on joints. Scuba diving should be averted because of reported fetal delivery defects and fetal decompression sickness. In standard, she should now not alter her regimen of exercise simply due to the fact she is pregnant, unless the workout may be very strenuous and can increase her body temperature significantly.



Communicable ailments are illnesses that unfold via an infectious agent via; bodily touch with an infected person, bites from insects, via manner of ingesting infected food or water. It is able to also be transmitted thru sexual intercourse e.g. gonorrhea, HIV/aids, syphilis, chancroid and many others. Instance of communicable sicknesses are; malaria, tuberculosis, common cold, whooping cough, chicken pox, polio, hepatitis A, meningitis bacterial, meningitis viral, rubella, diphtheria, HIV/aids, herpes simplex, mumps, ring worms.


Malaria is the main purpose of toddler demise in Kenya. it’s miles known to be transmitted through mosquito bites of an inflamed female anopheles mosquito. The Anopheles mosquito is free from disease when it comes out of the eggs and becomes a larva. It becomes pupa before emerging as an adult mosquito, still free of disease. What happens is that, the female mosquito feeds on nectar, but needs proteins to lay eggs. These proteins are acquired by a blood meal taken from any animal. Normally one blood meal is sufficient. But the malaria parasite has a trick. It eats the blood, so the mosquito does not have sufficient proteins for laying eggs, so the mosquito has to find a new victim. So when the mosquito is infected by the first blood meal, and the blood meal is eaten by the parasite, then the mosquito has to find a new victim, and the parasite is passed on. This is only successful if the new victim is of the same species. Malaria is species specific. Human malaria can only survive in humans, pig malaria only in pigs, etc. This is because each species has complicated immune systems the malaria parasite has to deal with.


The signs and symptoms of malaria typically begin 10–20 days following infection. Presentation may include headache, fever, chills, joint pain and vomiting. It usually includes, Anemia (low red blood cell levels in the blood)Diarrhea, Jaundice (yellow skin and eyes), Sweating, Vomiting, Fast heart rate. Low blood pressure, Enlarged organs and When something becomes enlarged or BIGGER than normal the word often ends in Magaly.


In humans, malaria is caused primarily by one of 4 species of protozoal parasites in the genus Plasmodium. They are Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Of these most infections are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax and most malaria deaths are caused by P. falciparum. All of these parasites are spread by the Anopheles genus of mosquitoes. When the mosquito bites a person infected with malaria, the mosquito itself becomes infected with malaria. In the mosquito, the malaria parasite undergoes a developmental stage that takes roughly a week after which the mosquito’s salivary glands contain malaria sporozoites. When the mosquito bites a human at this point, the sporozoites infect the human host by migrating to the liver where it develops over several days. After than the parasites travel through the bloodstream where they infect the host’s red blood cells. From here the parasite undergoes multiple rounds of replication and infection of the host’s red blood cells and can greatly increase their numbers in the human host and be taken up by a new mosquito. In is only during this final phase in which the parasite undergoes repeated rounds of red blood cell infection that a person infected with malaria will start to show symptoms.


Complication of malaria include; Respiratory distress, Metabolic acidosis, Pulmonary edema, Pneumonia, Miscarriages, Anemia, Renal failure, Splenomegaly, Reduced blood glucose, Shock, Psychosis, Coma and Death


The first symptoms of malaria most often are fever, chills, sweats, headaches, muscle pains, nausea and vomiting.

Prevention and control.

1.Seek medical attention if you start to show malaria symptoms.
2.Avoid mosquito bites by using insect repellent, by covering your arms and feet and sleeping under treated mosquito net.
3.Find out if you are at risk of getting malaria.
4.There is malaria prophylaxis in case you are travelling. Types of anti-Malaria medication.


Malaria parasites can be identified by examining under the microscope. A drop of patient’s blood spread out on a microscope slide, then its mounted. Specimen is then stained most often with the Giemsa stain to give the parasites a distinctive appearance. This technique remains the gold standard for laboratory confirmation for malaria. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit. (MRDTs). Usually provide results within 5-10 minutes. Used to detect antigens derived from malaria parasites. Offers useful alternative to microscopy in situations where reliable microscopic diagnosis is not available.


1. Doxycycline.

Its relatively cheap

Possible side effects.

  • Stomach upset
  • Heartburn
  • Thrush
  • Sun burns

2. Mefloquine.

It is relatively expensive.

Contra indications.

  • If the patient is epileptic
  • If the patient experiences episodes of seizures.
  • If the patient is suffering from depression.
  • If the patient has mental problems.
  • If the patient suffers from severe heart or liver problems.

Side effects.

  1. Dizziness.
  2. Headache.
  3. Insomnia.
  4. Anxiety.
  5. Hallucinations

3. Atovaquone and Proguanil.

Side effects.

  • Headache.
  • Skin rush.
  • Mouth ulcer.


  • Pregnant women.
  • People with severe kidney problems.

Antimalaria in pregnancy.

If you are pregnant its advisable that you refrain from travelling to areas were there is risk of malaria.

Pregnant women have increased risk of developing severe malaria which could lead to serious complication to both mother and child.

Some antimalarial used to prevent and treat malaria are unsuitable for pregnant women.

  • Doxycycline is never recommended for pregnant women and those who are breast feeding.
  • Atovaquone and proguanil is also not recommended for pregnant and breastfeeding women.
  • Mefloquine usually not prescribed in the first trimester of the pregnancy.
  • Chloroquine with proguanil is usually recommended during pregnancy.


2. tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis is caused due to bacterial infection resulting from a bacteria named as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
There are mainly two causes of TB. Firstly, if you are in contact with the person who is already suffering from active TB including friends, family, colleague etc. You may conjointly come in contact with TB if you happen to go to an area overrun by TB. Secondly, if your body’s immunity power is low . For example, if you are already suffering from diseases like HIV, Diabetes, Cancer, diseases related to kidney then chances of getting infection is more. Know the most effective potential strategies to stop tuberculosis(TB) which might be followed to save yourself from TB.


Tuberculosis (TB) is associate degree infection caused by mycobacterium. The main downside with TB is however contagious in enclosed environments. TB is in a position to transfer via mobile particles and doesn't need a cough to infect others. It is common in incarcerated individuals and institutionalized individuals because of their close proximity to each other.

Clinical manifestation.

Persons become infected with TB once they inhale driblet nuclei that contain tubercle bacilli, and also the bacilli begin to multiply within the little air sacs of the lungs. A few bacilli enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. Usually inside two to eight weeks, the system intervenes, preventing further spread. At this time, the person is taken into account to possess latent TB infection. Since the system is keeping the tubercle bacilli in restraint, individuals with latent TB infection don't feel sick, and that they cannot unfold TB to others.

Complications of TB.

Spinal pain, Back pain. Back stiffness, Arthritis. Meningitis, Kidney and liver disease and Heart disorder.

Risk factors.

Malnutrition, Chronic lung disease, Alcoholism, Diabetes mellitus, Certain medications like corticosteroids, Genetics and HIV/AIDS

Lab diagnosis.

Skin test, Chest x-ray, Sputum test, TB antigen test and Immunologic testing.

Prevention and management.

TB treatment is troublesome, thanks to the bizarre structure and chemical composition of the mycobacteria cytomembrane, that hinders the entry of medicine and makes several antibiotics ineffective. People with latent infections are treated to forestall them from reaching to active TB unwellness later in life. The urged treatment of new-onset white plague, is six months of a combination of antibiotics containing Rifampicin, isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol for the primary 2 months, and exclusively Rifampicin and isoniazid for the last four months. Where resistance to isoniazid is high, Ethambutol is also added for the last four months as an alternative.

3. Common Cold.

Common cold is that the commonest dosha disorder affecting people in general. Everyone has suffered from cold at some point or alternative in their lives. Its symptoms are too well-known. In Ayurveda, this very ordinary ailment is called as Pratishyaya. All the 3 doshas are to blame for the incidence of respiratory illness. Vata dosha common colds have dry coughs, very little mucous secretion discharge, husky voice, headache and a runny nose. People with tyrannid dosha World Health Organization have common colds can have fever, sore throat, yellowish nasal discharge and continuous blockage of the nose. People with kapha dosha common colds have thick mucous secretion discharges with uninteresting headaches and heaviness of the top.


Cold symptoms area unit variable, and should embody unquiet, watery, liquid eyes and nose, inflammatory disease, sneezing, cough, drawback respiratory, fever, headache, fatigue and/or a obscure feeling of being unwell (“general malaise”). Common early symptoms area unit unconditioned reflex, fatigue, eye/nose symptoms and feeling unwell.

4. Whooping cough.

Whooping cough (Pertussis) can be severe enough to cause intubation or death in babies so your concern is warranted. I have seen plenty of folks with pertussis and even diagnosed it over the phone (confirmed later by testing) due to the distinctive paroxysmal cough. In adults Pertussis just causes a bad cold with a cough that can last months – in some parts of the world, it is known as the 100 day cough. Fortunately, we have a VERY effective vaccine – DtaP (the “P” stands for pertussis) can be given to kids younger than 7. It takes 3 doses generally to be protected. You get 1 dose at 2 months of age, another at 4 months then one at 6 months and a few weeks later you are protected. You get another at eighteen months then 4–6 yrs that causes you to immune for regarding 7–10 yrs typically. The immunity then wanes which is why you get a dose of a DIFFERENT vaccine (TdaP – for folks 7 and older) which boosts immunity for another 10 yrs or so. That vaccine should be given at age 11 then every 10 yrs for the rest of your life. So…..the problem is as follows: How do you protect kids younger than 6 months when in that group it is not possible to be fully protected yet pertussis is most likely to cause death? The answer is that every one the population ought to be insusceptible in order that they have no one from that to catch the germ. That is known in medicine as “herd protection.” Like many viruses, pertussis is most contagious a couple of days BEFORE there are any symptoms of illness. That is why you can’t simply keep youngsters removed from sick individuals. When you have a baby, do NOT let anyone in your home nor hold your baby that is NOT up to date with a pertussis vaccine. The biggest offenders are grandparents and church family. If there is ANY doubt, just have them get another TdaP. There is no significant danger from getting an EXTRA TdaP (the risk is less than the risk of death from a car accident en route to getting the vaccine). There is significant risk to an infant by being exposed to someone not vaccinated. As a pediatrician, I see a lot of kids so I take extra precaution – I give myself the vaccine every 5 yrs. Technically, you only need a TdaP every 10 yrs but in some folks the antibodies wane faster than others. I’d rather be safe than think I may have caused an infant to get pertussis.

Clinical manifestation.

Whooping cough is a bacterial infection. It mostly affects upper respiratory tract. Its dangerous in babies especially those younger than six months. In severe cases, they may need to go to ER.

It presents with;

  • Mild cough.
  • Runny nose.
  • Low fever.
  • Sneezing.
  • Diarrhea.


If diagnosed with whooping cough early, then antibiotics can help reduce coughing and emerging symptoms. Also drink enough water to prevent dehydration.

5. Chicken pox.

     Chicken pox is a viral infection. It is characterized by formation of small itchy fluid filled blisters. Chicken pox is susceptible to those people have never had it before or have not been vaccinated against it. It can spread through skin contact or when an infected person coughs or sneezes.


Symptoms are literally signs that the sickness has already developed. The fever ,malaise and rash that you simply develop in chicken pox are the symptoms. These indicate that you have a certain disease.Doctors call these the signs. Once the symptoms are present,it means that you have already got the sickness,so there’s absolute certainty of hindrance. However,certain anti viral drugs can reduce the symptoms and lead to quicker recovery.

Predisposing factors.

  1. Person who has never had chicken pox before.
  2. Haven’t been vaccinated against chicken pox.
  3. Work or attend to a school or a child care facility.
  4. Live with children.


It can cause sepsis. Can lead to dehydration. Can cause pneumonia. Can lead to encephalitis. Toxic shock syndrome.Raye’s syndrome.


  • Vaccination against chicken pox.

Those who are susceptible.

People with suppress immunity.
Expectant mothers who never had chicken pox before.
Newborns and infants whose mothers never had chicken pox immunization.
People who use steroids.
People who take medicine that suppress their immune system.

Chicken pox on pregnancy.

  • Can cause low birth weight.
  • Birth defects e.g. limp abnormalities.
  • Can cause life threatening infection to the newborn.

6. Poliomyelitis.

It is a full form of Polio, or infantile paralysis. It is an infectious disease caused by the polio virus. In about 0.5 p.c of cases there’s muscle weakness leading to inability to move. This can occur over some hours to some days.
Polio is transmitted through contaminated water or food, or contact with an infected person.
Many people who are infected with the polio virus don’t become sick and have no symptoms. However, people who do become unwell develop dysfunction, which may generally be fatal.

Clinical manifestation.

  1. Loss of muscle coordination.
  2. Severe skeletal muscle pain.
  3. weak limbs.
  4. paralysis may occur.
  5. limbs may fail to fully occour.


  • Antispasmodic drugs to relax muscles.
  • Antibiotics for urinary tract infection.
  • Portable ventilators.
  • Physical therapy.


Meningitis is that the inflammation of the tissue layer of the brain. The meninges are usually three that cover the brain.

Common causes of meningitis are;

  • Cancer
  • Drug allergies

1. Symptoms of viral meningitis.


  • Irritability
  • Fever
  • Insomnia
  • Reduced appetite


  • Headaches.
  • Fever.
  • Stiff neck.
  • Seizures.
  • Sensitivity to light.
  • Insomnia.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Reduced appetite.

2. Symptoms of Bacterial meningitis.

Bacteria or virus is the invention to tag reasons. Useful but misused. Doctors struggle to find out. Recent trend is not to find the cause but to attach a cause. If easily handled it is bacteria. If prolonging it is virus.

Labs struggle to find bacteria or virus. The struggles to know what bacteria or virus is troublesome. One has to find whether the subjects found around disease are the causes or the effects. The doubt comes when someone gets sick or say fever by fear or after a shock. Fear caused the fever. Some bacteria is found in test. What relation can we attach between Fear and Bacteria in such cases?

  • Altered mental status.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Sensitivity to light.
  • Irritability.
  • Headache.
  • Fever.
  • Chills.
  • Stiff neck.
  • Insomnia.


Treatment is usually determined by the cause of meningitis. Bacterial meningitis requires early hospitalization. Early treatment can prevent death. Treatment of bacterial meningitis depends on bacteria involved. Common tests usually include,

Two big reasons: the blood-brain barrier is hard to get through, and fungi resemble our body cells too much for us to blast through, the way we can with bacterial infections. It’s usually good that the barrier is hard to penetrate, however once you have infectious disease, it represents a special challenge. Some medications penetrate higher than others, however there’s continuously some portion that does not build it through. Fungus – like black mildew within the lungs, athletes foot, nail fungus – is tricky to combat because anti fungal will also affect body cells, so both sides end up taking damage. You’ve seen however some antibiotics would possibly solely want a 5- day course? This is almost never the case for fungi.

Lab Tests
Blood culture. To identify bacteria in blood
Complete blood count.
Chest x-rays

You can prevent meningitis by leading a healthy lifestyle e.g.

  1. Avoid smoking
  2. Avoid contact with the sick
  3. Getting enough rest
  4. Vaccination

Complication of meningitis.

  1. Hearing loss.
  2. Vision loss.
  3. Arthritis
  4. Brain damage.
  5. Hydrocephalus.
  6. Seizures.


8. Rubella.

     It is caused by rubella virus and it spreads through the air.  Usually occur two weeks after exposure. This is a condition usually presents with swollen lymph nodes, rash, fever, sore throat and generalized body Malays.

Lab diagnosis.

  • Blood culture
  • Serology


There is no specific treatment for rubella. Management maters of responding to symptoms to reduce discomfort.


HIV is known as the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus which is a retro virus that cause HIV infection and attacks out immune system. This virus destroys the T-helper cells or CD 4 cells. The T-helper cells are defined as the lymphocytes which are nourished in the Thymus gland. This retro virus infects these T-helper cells and makes copies of itself in these cells. Hence, it gradually breaks down the immune system in our body. Hence, HIV brings about opportunistic illnesses.

Sign and symptoms.

It is ascertained that few patients could show early symptoms once they get infected with HIV. Following early symptoms may be misdiagnosed as influenza.
Low grade fever
Symptoms could occur 4-7 years when infection with HIV. Following signs and symptoms could also be warning signs of late-stage HIV infection:
Rapid weight loss (more than 15 %)
Relapsing fever
All kind of bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal infections
Excessive fatigue
Enlargement of lymph glands in the armpits, groin etc
Diarrhoea more than a week
Recurring Pneumonia
Loss of memory and other neurological disorders
Increased risk of Cancer, lymphoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma and cervical cancer
Many patients could develop contagion like symptoms referred to as as acute HIV infection (usually 2-4 weeks post-exposure). The common symptoms are
Swelling of Lymph nodes
Skin rash
Recurrent non healing oral ulcers
Swelling of liver/spleen
Weight loss

Opportunistic infections include;

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • tuberculosis


HIV/aids is diagnosed by lab testing through;

  • blood screening.
  • Serology.
  • Blood count.

Prevention and Treatment.

  • Avoid unprotected sex.
  • Circumcision
  • Sexual abstinence.
  • HIV prophylaxis.

Objective is to reduce risk of progression to aids, Antiretroviral treatment.